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"Insights" from the New Testament Greek

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 Study Notes from the New Testament Greek

By Bob Jones, Northside Bible Church, Jacksonville Florida

Greek Synonyms

Greek Terms

Greek Article "The"

Conditional Sentences

Greek Prepositions

Granville Sharp Rule


Major Koine Greek Synonyms in the KJV and Textus Receptus Greek Text

Compiled by Bob Jones Northside Bible Church

List revised Mar 23, 2000 - All definitions from Thayer Greek Lexicon

KJV      GREEK SYNONYMS                               SCRIPTURE EXAMPLES:

====    ========================    ====================================


              Hopas = Absolutely all.

                Matt 24:39 All (Hopas, absolutely all) the evil inhabitants of the earth were swept away by the flood. (Only Noah and his family were left alive).
                NOTE: We cannot force the English word "all" to mean "absolutely all" unless the Greek word underneath is "hopas".

             Pas = All sorts, all types, all kinds.

                Phil 4:13 I can do all (pas = all TYPES of, not absolutely all) things through Christ which strengtheneth me.

                (Note that a list of 6 "types of things" Paul is "doing" is in the previous verse).

            Holos = All, consisting of all its parts.

                Matt 24:14, Rev 13:3, in "all" the world.

            HolOs (last "O" is "omega") = The whole, altogether.

                1 Cor 15:29, rise not "at all".

            Holotelas = Complete in extent AND in all its parts.

                1 Thess 5:23 "sanctify you wholly".


            Aleipho = Medical treatment or stimulating rubdown with a cooling liquid.

                James 5:14, Anointing = Aleipho.

            Krio = Spiritual or ceremonial anointing (Set apart for a purpose).

                2 Cor 1:21, Anointed = Krio.

            Egkrio = To smear on, rub in.

                Rev 3:18, Anoint = Egkrio.


            Allos = Another of the SAME kind.

                John 14:16, Another Comforter = Allos.

            Heteros = Another of a DIFFERENT kind.

                Gal 1:6&7 Another (Heteros) which is not another (Allos).

            Heis = Another numerically.

                1 Thess 5:11, Edify one another = Heis


            Palingenesia = Regenerate, recreate, restoration of a thing to its pristine state.

                Titus 3:5, for the new birth restoring us to the state of Adam before the fall.

            Gennao = Procreate, give birth.

                Primarily human, but in 1 John 2:29, 3:9, 4:7, & 5:1 our new birth.

            Zoopoieo = Make alive, give life where there was no life. Used for the New Birth and also for resurrection life.

                Always "quicken" in the KJV except "made alive" in 1 Cor 15:22, and "given life" in 2 Cor 3:6 & Gal 3:21.

                John 5:21 Jesus "quickens" whom He will.

                Eph 2:5 Even when we were dead in sins, He "quickened" us together with Christ.


            Baros = Burdens, overloads.

                Gal 6:2 Bear ye one another's burdens (baros).

            Phortion = A normal load (Properly assigned for a ship to carry).

                Gal 6:5 For every man shall bear his own burden (Phortion).

            Gomos = The ships cargo itself. Acts 21:3

            Katabareo = To load down, impose a burden on. 2 Cor 12:16


            Diadem = A kings crown.

                Rev 19:12, Diadem for Jesus at 2nd Advent!

            Stephanos = Wreaths & awards at the Olympic games.

                1 Cor 9:25, 2 Tim 2:5, Rev 4:4, Stephanos for us.


            Mona = Personal abiding or dwelling place, used for a room or apartment.

                John 14:23, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him and make our "abode" (Mona) with him.

            Oikia = The inhabited dwelling on the estate where the owners family lives.

                John 14:2, In my Father's house (Oikia) are many mansions (Mona) if [it were] not [so], I would have told you.

            Oikos = The whole estate, property, or household. 

                1 Pet 4:17, Judgement begins at the house (Oikos) of God.


            Krino = Actively decide guilt and measure out punishment (Don't do!).

                Rom 14:13, Krino. (We're commanded not to judge)

            Anakritheo = Passively discern right from wrong (We're commanded to judge).

                1 Cor 2:15, Anakritheo. (We do judge!)



            Gnosis = Vertical list of facts.

                1 Cor 8:1 "Gnosis" by itself tends to "puff up".

            Epignosis = A full knowledge.

                We are to continually grow in knowledge (epignosis), Eph 1:17 & 4:13, Phil 1:9, Col 1:9 & 3:10.

            Sunesis = Understanding, merging lists of facts, a broadening knowledge.

                Understanding - Eph 3:4 & 2 Tim 2:7.

            Sophia = Wisdom, placing knowledge into action.

                Wisdom - Col 3:16, Jas 1:5 & 3:15 & 17.

                Prov 24:3 & 4 Illustrates.


            Kurios = Relates to families, a moral authority for good of the family.

                Kurios is in over 100 N.T. passages speaking of our relationship with our Lord. The Greek word used for Adonai & Yahweh in the Septuagint.

            Despotes = Relates to slaves, unrestricted lordship or domination.

                2 Pet 2:1, Rev 6:10 - Despotes relates to the sovereignty of God.

            Rabboni = Teacher, Mark 10:51, Lord = Rabboni, or teacher.


            Agape = Love from God - unconditional, does not depend on the object. Agape love is supernatural and only comes from God. We can only reflect it, we cannot produce it.

                1 Cor chap 13, the characteristics of  agape are listed. Mark 10:51 Amazingly Jesus looked at the Rich young Ruler and loved him, "agape"!

            Phileo = Friendship, from knowledge and appreciation of the object.

                John 21:15-17 Agape and phileo:

                Simon, {son} of Jonas, lovest (agape) thou me? Yea Lord, thou knowest that I love (phileo) thee. He saith unto him, Feed my sheep (little lambs). He saith to him again the second time, Simon, {son} of Jonas, lovest (agape) thou me? He saith unto him, yea Lord thou knowest that I love (phileo) thee. He saith unto him feed (shepherd) my sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, {son} of Jonas, lovest (phileo) thou me? Peter was grieved because he said to him a third time lovest (phileo) thou me? And he saith unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I love (phileo) thee. Jesus saith unto him, feed my sheep.

                Peter cannot bring himself to say "agape", because he has recently denied Jesus 3 times. He knows that Jesus would just say "well, why did you deny me?". This is a poignant narrative that cuts right down to Peter's soul. The three denials of Peter, and the three questions of Jesus, much better than "scolding" Peter.

            Storgas = Natural affection - family love, even animals have it by instinct.

                2 Tim 3:3 In the last days, some will be without natural affection = astorgas.

            Eros = Physical love (Not in the Textus Receptus).


            Anthropas = Mankind (Generic). Rom 2:16 & 3:4 - Anthropas.

            Aner = Man (Male). Generally translated "man" and "husband".

            Gune = Woman (Female). Generally translated "woman" and "wife".


            Teleios = Mature, complete.

                Matt 5:48 "Be ye perfect" = Teleios.

                Jas 1:4 Let patience have her perfect (Teleios) work, that you may be perfect (Teleios) and entire (Holokletos), wanting nothing.

                Also James 3:2, 1 Cor 14:20, and Heb 5:14.

            Holokletos = Whole consisting of all its parts, James 1:4 above.

            Artios = Completely fitted and furnished, as a soldier or rock climber. 2 Tim 3:17


            Dunamis = Kinetic energy (dynamite). In Eph 1:19-21.

            Kratos = Vigor. In Eph 1:19-21.

            Kuriotates = Rulership or dominion. In Eph 1:19-21.

            Iskus = Force. In Eph 1:19-21.

            Energon = Effectiveness In Eph 1:19-21.

            Exusia = Authority. Rom 13:1, Each power = exusia, also in Eph 1:19-21.

            Arche = Magistrate, human rulership. In Eph 1:19-21 and Luke 20:20.

                                                                      The 7 Greek words above in one passage (KJV):

                Eph 1:19-21 - "And what [is] the exceeding greatness of his power (dunamis) to us-ward who believe, according to the working (energon) of his mighty (kratos) power (iskus), which he wrought (energon) in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set [him] at his own right hand in the heavenly places], far above all principality (arche), and power (exusia), and might (dunamis), and dominion (kuriotatos), and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come."

            Didomai = Ability. Rev 13:14&15. (The word form is Dotha, as in ver 7.)

            Megaliotes = Magnificance, splendor , Luke 9:43.


            Metamelomai = An emotional reaction, sorry it happened. Matt 27:3&4.

            Metanoieo = A real change of mind. (Evidenced by a change in actions).

                2 Cor 7:8-10. Metamelomai 3 times, metanoieo 2 times.


            Sodzo = Save, heal, preserve, protect, make whole (Primarily Spiritual).

                Matt 1:21, Save His people from their sins.

                Matt 9:21 & 22, Make whole.

                Mark 5:23, Physical healing.

                John 11:12, To get well.

                2 Tim 4:18, Preserve.

            Iaomai = Heal, Make whole (Primarily miraculous). Acts 28:8 & 9.

            Therapeuo = Heal, make well (Primarily medical). Acts 28:8 & 9.

            NOTE: In Acts 28:8 & 9, Paul performs a miraculous healing (iaomai) to draw a crowd,  and then Paul and Doctor Luke treated others medically (therapeuo).


            Hettema = Diminishing what should have been given full measure, also to suffer defeat or failure).

                1 Cor 6:7, KJV = A fault.

            Agnoema = Ignorance when one should have known.

                Heb 9:7, KJV = Errors.

            Paraptoma = Falling when one should have stood. (Unintentional slip) Second most frequent, used 23 times in the New Testament.

                Col 2:13, KJV = Sins and Trespasses (paraptoma used twice in this passage, translated "sins" the first time and "trespasses" the second time).

            Parakoe = Disobey a voice.

                2 Cor 10:6, KJV = Disobedience.

                            Parabasis = Cross the line.

                              Gal 3:19, KJV = Transgressions.

                                          Hamartia = Miss the mark. (And fail to receive the prize) By far the most frequent, used 174 times in the New Testament.

                                            Rom 4:7 & 8, KJV = Sin, also "iniquities" = anomia. 

                                          Anomia, Paranomia = Breaking Gods laws, lawlessness.

                                            1 John 3:4, KJV "lawlessness" = Anomia. Also "sin"in this verse = "Hamartia".


                                          Phimo = Place a muzzle on. Matt 22:34, Jesus "silenced" the Sadducees.

                                            1 Pet 2:15. By doing divine good works we "silence" (put a muzzle on) foolish men.

                                          Sigao = Stop talking, be quiet.

                                            1 Cor 14:28, 30, & 34. The church at Corinth is given 6 rules for speaking in "tongues".

                                          Hesukia = General atmosphere of peace, quiet, & rest.

                                            1 Tim 2:11 & 12. Women to be "silent", is not "Phimo", not "Sigao", but "Hesukia". Also verse 2 uses Hesukia for quietness.

                              SOUND, SPEAK, TALK, SAY:

                                          Phone = Emphasis on tonal quality of the sound. 1 Cor 14:7,8,10,& 11.

                                          Logos = Emphasis on communication with words. 1 Cor 14:9 & 19.

                                            1 Cor 2:4 My speech (Logos) and my preaching was not with enticing words (Logos).

                                          Laleo = Emphasis not on the content, but on the fact that a sound was uttered:

                                            1 Cor 14:2, All references to "speaking" in tongues in First Corinthians are "laleo".

                                            Heb 1:1 & 2, A unique use of laleo, where God first speaks to man, the emphasis here is that God "broke the silence". It's awesome that God has spoken to man at all. Laleo here amplifies the fact that God did "break the silence".

                                          Thongos = A musical sound. 1 Cor 14:7.

                                          Echos = A very loud noise. Acts 2:2.

                                          Salpizo = The sound of a trumpet. 1 Cor 15:52.

                              TEMPLE, TABERNACLE:

                                          Hieron = O.T. outer temple. 1 Cor 9:13, only use of hieron in N.T.

                                          Naos = Inner holy place of the temple, where only the high priest could go.

                                            1 Cor 6:19, God's people in the New Testament are His "Naos", the inner most holy place!

                                          Skeene = Portable tent.

                                            Heb 9:1-21, Also refers to the portable Old Testament tabernacle.

                              TRANSFORM, CONFORM:

                                          Schema = Outer transformation in appearance only.

                                            2 Cor 11:13-14, Satan and false apostles.

                                          Metamorphosis = Outer transformation due to outworking of the inner nature.

                                            Matt 17:2, Jesus on mount of transfiguration.

                                            2 Cor 3:18, We are in the process of being transformed (metamorphosis) by the Spirit of God.

                                            Rom 12:2, Don't be being conformed (Schema) to the world (this Age we are living in) but be being transformed (Metamorphosis) by the renewing of our minds!

                              NOTE: Every child of God already has the new nature, like a worm that will become a butterfly. Just like the butterfly, all we must do is GROW, and our new nature works it's way out!


                                          Aion = Large time periods or "ages", what kind of "age" is defined by the context.

                                            Translated over 30 times in the KJV as "world", referring to a "dispensation" or one of God's time periods, such as the "Church Age".

                                            Matt 13:22-49, the "Jewish Age".

                                            Rom 12:2, Be not conformed to this world (aion or this "age" we live in).

                                          Kairos = Emphasis on opportunity, "due time", "the right time" etc.

                                            Matt 8:29, Rom 5:6, Gal 6:9 "season" & 10 "opportunity".

                                          Chronos = A fixed amount of time with emphasis on quantity. John14:9.

                                            1 Thess 5:1, Chronos & Kairos in the same verse.

                              WILL, WISH:

                                          Boulomai = Will, decree. 

                                            Acts 2:23 God's divine decree, "counsel" = Boulomai.

                                          Thelo = Wish, desire, arising out of what one wants.

                                            Rom 9:14-23 (KJV) Boulomai and Thelo repeatedly mixed through one passage:

                                            "What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. So then it is not of him that willeth (Thelo), nor of him that runneth, but of God that showeth mercy. For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might show my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth. Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will (Thelo) have mercy, and whom he will (Thelo) he hardeneth. Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will? (Boulomai or decree). Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour? What if God, willing (Thelo) to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction: And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory."

                                            Eph 1:3-11 (KJV) Boulomai and Thelo mixed all through one passage:

                                            "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will (Thelo), to the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace; Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence; Having made known unto us the mystery of his will (Thelo), according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself: That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him: In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel (Boulomai) of his own will (Thelo)."

                                            NOTE: In Eph 1:11 God's DECREES are the result of His DESIRES. God has NO unfulfilled desires, He works all things after the counsel (Boulomai) of his own will (Thelo).


                                          Aion = Age or period of time.

                                            Matt 24:3, The end of the "world" is not the end of the world at all, but the end of this "Aion" or "Age".

                                            Matt 12:32, This "world" = Aion or "Age".

                                          Kosmos = An orderly arrangement (of what MUST be determined from context).

                                            A "world" of unbelievers: John 14:17, John 15:19, John 17:9&14, 2 Pet 2:5, 1 Jn 3:13.

                                            A "world" of believers: John 3:16, 2 Cor 5:19, 1 Jn 2:2, 1 Jn 4:14.

                                            A "world" of iniquity: James 3:6.

                                            The "world" of the ungodly: 2 Pet 2:5.

                                          Oikoumene = Continents, land mass, region, or whole inhabited earth.

                                            Luke 2:1, All the "world" (oikoumene) should be taxed.

                                          Ge = Earth, dirt, our planet.

                                            Rev 13:3, Amazement existed all over the whole "world" ("ge" = earth or planet).

                              Note: The English word "world" in the Bible is one of the most misunderstood words in the Bible, and I believe it has led to the formation of more "denominations" than any other one word. The problem occurs when we try to force the English word "world" to mean "every human being in the world", instead of determining "A WORLD OF WHAT" from the context! When you read the Scriptures and see the word "world", look at the context and ask yourself "A WORLD OF WHAT". Even today, we have "Cloth World", "Computer World", "Boaters World", and a "you're in a world of trouble", etc..

                              Scripture example, John 3:16 KJV: For God so loved the "world", that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

                              John 3:16 translation from the Greek: For God, at a past point in time, loved (agape) the "world" of those who are presently believing, so much, that he gave his only begotten Son (the Cross), for the purpose that anyone who is presently believing in him will not even begin to perish, but shall keep on having everlasting life.

                              In John 3:16, The Greek word "kosmos", translated "world" is a collection of "those who are presently believing".

                              If you have a Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, or a Greek-English interlinear, you can see which Greek synonyms are underneath all the English words of the New Testament.

                              Eph 1:15-18,

                                Bob Jones

                              Greek Synonyms

                              Greek Terms

                              Greek Article "The"

                              Conditional Sentences

                              Greek Prepositions

                              Granville Sharp Rule